The Mikmaq First Nation

Micmac in old English, Mikmaq First Nation of the Algonquian language family. Mi'kmaw to describe one person or object, Mi'kmaq to describe more then one person or object.

530x380Mi'kmaq Grand Council Flag -

The Mikmaq First Nation Grand Council established long before the arrival of the Europeans in the 17th century is still the traditional government of the Mi'kmaq First Nation of today even if some of its political powers have since been restricted. 

A Grand Council that was and still is considered a spiritual authority by the Mi'kmaq people and Councillors who advocate, promote, preserve and maintain the tradition, the language, the culture and the well being of the Mi'kmaq people. 

530x340Gespeg Mi'kmaq First Nation

The Mi'kmaq People of the Sea

For time immemorial, the semi-nomadic Mikmaq First Nation of the coastal regions of Eastern Canada relied on fishing, hunting, gathering and trading what the sea and the land had to offer.

The Mi'kmaq hunted large game such as caribou and moose and went fishing for seals, walrus and whales. A rich culture built on their surrounding environment and resources and semi-nomadic indigenous people organized into family-based bands.

530x351Listuguj Mi’gmaq First Nation

The navigation and fishing skills of the Mi'kmaq just so happened to be invaluable to the explorers and traders who had just arrived in our climate and our immensity. 

Mi'kmaqMicmac or Míkmaq who still practice their traditional salmon fishing and who maintain and promote their history through the conservation and the development of their ancestral sites. 

530x395Mi'kmaq Art - The Canadian Encyclopedia

The Mi'kmaq First Nation Bands in Quebec

According to Indigenous Foundations "a band or Indian Band is a governing unit of Indians in Canada instituted by the Indian Act of 1876 that defines a band as a body of Indians".

Three Mi'kmaq First Nation bands in the province of Quebec:

  • Gesgapegiag First Nation with services that include Administration, Health, Forestry, Education, Gesgapegiag Human Resource Development Commission (GHRDC), Public Security, Fisheries and Economic Development.
530x353Gesgapegiag Mi'kmaq First Nation
  • Gespeg First Nation (no reserve) plays an important role in showcasing Mi'kmaq crafts by helping and allowing artisans in the community to make and sell their products.
  • Listuguj Mi’gmaq First Nation who never surrendered their rights to their ancestral territory of Gespe’gewa’gi. They never gave up their right to govern and to manage their resources in accordance with their values, their beliefs and their principles.

Communities related by alliance and kinship and leaderships based on prestige rather than power mostly concerned with effective management of their respective fishing and hunting economy.

530x413Mi'kmaq Art - McCord Museum

The Mi'kmaq First Nation Art

Like many other Indigenous people, Mi’kmaq practiced an art linked to their natural environment. Mi'kmaq were and still are creative artists and their beaded clothing and woven baskets of today is a beautiful testimony of their remarkable talent and creativity.


The Mi'kmaq combine their traditional knowledge with contemporary expertise and, by doing so, they create new and beautiful art forms. 

Traditional art that asserts and confirms their forever identity, talent and presence.

The objects made by the Mi'kmaq are practical, meaningful and attractive. Wood such as maple, oak, ash, birch and cedar is their favorite material and traditional wood techniques that enable them to create old and new artistic designs and patterns.

Music is also an important element of the Mi'kmaq culture. 

The AbenakisAnishinaabeg, Atikamekw, Crees, Huron-Wendats, Innus, Maliseets, Mi'kmaqMowhawks, Naskapis First Nations and, the Inuits in Inuit Nunangat, the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada and Alaska.

Montreal CLUB Kit
Mikmaq First Nation by Rachel Louise Barry
Mi'kmaw singular - Mi'kmaq plural

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