The Maliseet First Nation

The Maliseet First Nation is located on both sides of the border simply because this is were the Malécites lived well before Canada and United States became countries. 

Their area of origin is between Maine and New Brunswick and their territory is now located in the Whitworth Township, close to Rivière-du-Loup and to a tiny lot in Cacouna. The Maliseet of Viger reserve is the smallest in Canada. 

The Maliseets were semi-nomadic people who largely depended on hunting and fishing and who cultivated corn. Eastern Algonquian was and still is part of their language. The Maliseet of Viger community is the only reserve in the province of Quebec.

The Maliseet People of the Beautiful River

It is only in 1987, after an extensive research, that some of the remaining Maliseets reunited, formed the Maliseet of Viger First Nation, elected their first Grand Chef and band councillors and formed their first band council.

Then, at the beginning of the 21st century, the Maliseets began their involvement in commercial food fisheries and, after having obtained many different fishing permits, they formed a Committee. Nowadays, the Maliseets of Viger are involved in commercial fishing and own a snow crab processing plant. 

Among its many responsibilities, the Committee coordinates "Maliseet Fisheries - Les Pêcheries Malécites", looks after human resources, recruits and trains new personnel, improves fishing practices and implements new policies.

As a result, the Maliseet of Viger First Nation now operates a successful commercial fishing enterprise, fishing snow crab and northern Gulf shrimp. The Maliseet also diversify their economy and develop regional partnerships. 

The Mig'maq Maliseet Aboriginal Fisheries Management Association - MMAFMA

The mission of this MMAFMA is to "promote the sustainable management and conservation of aquatic and oceanic ecosystems and activity zones of the Mi'qmags of Gesgapegiag, the Mi'qmaqs of Gespeg and the Maliseets of Viger".

Gesgapegiag is a Mi’gmaq community located on the south shore of Gaspésie and, the Mi'kmaq Nation of Gespeg is located on the Gaspé peninsula. As for the Maliseet First Nation, the Maliseets and the Fisheries and Oceans Canada have been discussing an agreement on fisheries rights since 2017.

The Maliseet of Viger First Nation

Nowadays, most Maliseets speak French, some speak English and some still speak Maliseet-Passamaquoddy, two major dialects that differ only slightly.


Wolastoqiyik and Passamaquoddy are now endangered Iroquoian languages mostly because children are not learning them anymore. There is however, a growing interest in teaching and learning the language in some schools and some community classes.

The Maliseet of Viger have their own government, laws, police and services and, the Canadian government is now "committed to a renewed relationship with Indigenous peoples based on the recognition of rights, respect, cooperation and partnership".

Their Sakom in Maliseet, Chief (he or she) in English is no longer chosen by the Council but elected by all members of the Maliseet of Viger First Nation.

The AbenakisAnishinaabeg, Atikamekw, Crees, Huron-Wendats, InnusMaliseetsMi'kmaq, Mowhawks, Naskapis First Nations and, the Inuit in Inuit Nunangat, the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada and Alaska.

Montreal CLUB Kit
Maliseet First Nation by Rachel Louise Barry
Maliseet singular - Maliseets plural

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