Indigenous Tribes

Many indigenous tribes such as the Cree Nation have evolved into a political force that now provides their members with benefits such as health, education, economics and housing.

Some of the key factors of the success of the Cree nation include identity and culture, strategic vision and planning, along with collaboration, partnership and external relationships.

The Inuit on the other hand, isolated themselves from the two First Nation families, that is the Algonquian and the Iroquoian also called Six nations. Indigenous tribes that still live in northern areas such Alaska, Canada, Siberia and Greenland.

The Cree Nation of Eeyou Istchee

The Cree call themselves Eeyou and their land is called Eeyou Istchee. Indigenous societies shared by eleven Cree communities and hundreds of "traplines" formally called traditional family hunting and trapping grounds. A long-established territory mostly located in the northern part of the province of Quebec.


The Eeyou are united through their common interests, their traditional values, their culture and their Cree language.

Each First Nation is administered independently by its local government and each elected Chief sits on the Board of Directors of the Grand Council of Eeyou Istchee as well as on the Council of the Cree Nation Government. Both Councils address common Cree nations and common Cree issues.

Nine of the eleven Cree communities are part of the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement. The tenth, Washaw Sibi is in the process of establishing its community and will soon join the Treaty while the eleventh, the MoCreebec maintains a unique affiliation with the other Eeyou Indigenous peoples.

The Inuit People of the North

Almost the entire Inuit Nation lives in Nunavik, the homeland of the Inuit of the North. Inuit is plural and Inuk is singular. Nunavik means "great land" in Inukitut, the language spoken by the majority. The Inuit of the region call themselves Nunavimmiut.


Inuit are Indigenous peoples living primarily in their homeland known as Inuit Nunangat which refers to the land, water and ice contained in the Arctic region.The Inuit are an entirely separate ethnic group from all the other Canadian Indigenous tribes and nations. 

English is their second language while French is progressing. Their 14 villages are located on the shores of the Hudson Strait between the Baffin Island and Nunavik as well as on the shores of the Hudson and Ungava Bays in the northeastern part of Canada.

During the last century or so, the Inuit went from a semi-nomadic to a more sedentary lifestyle. They slowly accustomed themselves to technology while remaining eager to preserve their values, their language and their culture.

Stone, bone and ivory carving are widely practiced by Inuit who carve entirely by hand, using an axe and a file. Inuit art carving is their most significant art activity, but Inuit printmaking is also enjoying its own popularity. Fiber arts, drawings and paintings are also produced in quantity, but without the same popularity.

The Cree, one out of ten Indigenous Peoples and Tribes, plus the Inuit who live in Inuit Nunangat, the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada and Alaska.

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Indigenous Tribes by Rachel Louise Barry


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