Aboriginal Adventure


All together in a new and interesting aboriginal adventure. Together because some of us, although interested, are not familiar with many if not all our Aboriginals? Indians? Natives? and many other Canadian words. 

Let's start with some of the words. Let's start with listing, describing and explaining the terms people use when referring to the "indigenous peoples who occupied North America for thousands of years before the European explorers first arrived in the 11th century".

And, let's not forget that Canada is not another word for North America, Canada is located in the northern part of North America.

Many of us do need to better understand the meaning of words such as Aboriginal, Autochtone, Eskimo, First Nations, Indians, Indigenous, Inuit, Metis, Natives, Peoples, Premières nations...

So, let's start with finding out about a vocabulary that will eventually take us to a very interesting and very aboriginal adventure especially since Montreal, just like many other Canadian cities, now highlights the parts played by indigenous cultures in the past, present and future of our territory.

Canada Aboriginal Historic Terms


The following terminology is derived from Quebec Aboriginal Tourism and from Termium Plus of the Canadian Government. 

Autochtone and not Première Nations is the collective French term for North American Indians, Inuit and Metis. The English equivalent is Aboriginal such as in aboriginal adventure.

The collective French and English terms Premières Nations and First Nations both refer to all the North American Indians, but do not include the Inuit and the Métis. 

Canada Aboriginal Peoples


Aboriginal refers to the first inhabitants of Canada. As per Section 35 of the Canadian Constitution Act, 1982, the term includes the North America Indians, the Inuit and the Metis Peoples of Canada.

Eskimo is an offensive term that identifies a group of people who live in the northern areas of Alaska, Canada, Greenland and Siberia. The proper terms are Inuk (singular) and Inuit (plural).

Innu on the other hand are members of an indigenous group located in the northeastern part of Québec and in the southern part of Labrador.

First Nations refers to Indian bands and to all the North American Indians except the Inuit and the Metis. First Nations is used as a noun or as an adjective. 

Meaning of Aboriginal


The name Indian comes from Christopher Columbus who, mistakenly tought he had reached India and thus called the aboriginals Indians. Nowadays, it is frowned upon to use the word Indian when referring to an autochtone people in a casual conversation. 

The Indian Act is a Canadian federal law that governs in matters pertaining to North American Indian status, Indian bands and Indian reserves and each of their official English and French names.

An Indian Band also referred as a First Nation band is the basic government unit for those who are subject to the Indian Act.

Aboriginal Cultural Tour


Indian reserves are tracts of lands set aside under the Indian Act and treaty agreements for the exclusive use of Indian bands. Indian reserve is the term used in Canada while Indian reservation is used in United States.

Indian register and Indian status both refer to the specific legal identity of Canadian Aboriginal peoples. Rights and benefits that are not granted to unregistered North American Indians, Inuit and Métis.

Indigenous peoples is the collective term for North American Indians, Inuit and Métis while Aboriginal peoples is the collective term for First Nations, Inuit and Metis.

Welcome to our Aboriginal Adventure


Inuit (plural) refers to a specific group of people who, for the most part, live in the far northern areas and who are not considered North American Indians under the Canadian law. Inuktitut is their language.

The issue of the Métis identity continues to be the topic of much debate and discussion, since Métis rights depend on identifying the people who are entitled to such rights, and then on specifying what those rights are.

In Canada, the terms Aboriginal and Indigenous are preferred to the term Native. Many feel that native has a negative connotation and is outdated.

The plural Peoples refers to more than one Aboriginal group. Aboriginal People for an Aboriginal individual and Aboriginal Peoples for more than one Aboriginal population.   

Montreal TOURIST Kit

Aboriginal Adventure by Rachel Louise Barry

Aboriginal Peoples Part 1

Aboriginal Peoples Part 2 / Aboriginal Peoples Part 3

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